WEIGHT: 53 kg
Sex services: Photo / Video rec, Games, Tantric, Parties, Pole Dancing
Relevant peer-reviewed and grey literature were also hand-searched, and key papers were cross-referenced for additional material. Five hundred fifty one records were screened and records reviewed.
Armed conflicts have resulted in unprecedented waves of population displacement as well as other deleterious human rights, public health, and social impacts, including the disruption of traditional social structures, a breakdown in security, and weakened or collapsed health systems [ 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ]. The economic, social and political instability of conflict and post-conflict environments, including social and physical displacement, loss of traditional economic options, cultural upheaval, family separation and increased women-headed households, often result in conditions that facilitate significant engagement in sex work as a source of income, particularly for women.
Further, armed conflict and the highly policed and militarized environment characteristic of post conflict have been linked to widespread gender-based violence including rape as a weapon of war; forced abductions , rights violations of women [ 3 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 ], and reduced access to, or the interruption of, HIV and sexual and reproductive health SRH programmes [ 4 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 ].
For example, previous research has shown that within conflict settings, the interruption of condom distribution, disruption of HIV diagnostic services, and shortages of HIV antiretroviral therapy ART may drastically impede diagnosis and care [ 18 ]. Furthermore, that programmers and development partners in humanitarian settings may be uninterested in sex work or may conflate issues of sexual exploitation with sex work for ideological or political reasons, creates perverse barriers in the protection of human rights for this group.
While the majority of sex workers globally are women, there are sizable populations of men and transgender sex workers in many settings [ 23 , 24 , 25 ]. Despite this, research and programmes in the past decade have largely focused on behavioural and biomedical interventions among SWs, which alone, have had only modest effects on the reduction of HIV at the population-level [ 22 , 27 ].